Adverse Childhood Experiences—ACEs
What is the Background of ACEs?
The original Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study was conducted at Kaiser Permanente in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1995 to 1997. Over 17,000 Kaiser members receiving physical exams completed confidential surveys regarding their experience of childhood abuse, neglect, household challenges, and later-life health and well-being. The types of ACEs studied were neglect (emotional and physical), abuse (emotional, physical, and sexual), and household challenges including domestic violence, substance abuse, mental illness, separation/divorce, and incarcerated household members.
The participants of the Kaiser ACE study were 74.8% white, 46.4% over age 60, and 35.9% had completed some college, with another 39.3% being college graduates or higher. Recognizing the need for a more diverse range of experiences to be acknowledged, the RYSE (Rising Youth for Social Equity) Center has built on the original ACE pyramid to include experiences of historical trauma, implicit bias, and the impact of adverse social conditions.